Pervasive Healthcare


Pervasive Healthcare is healthcare technology within the pervasive computing paradigm. That is – instead of thinking healthcare technology as following the traditional personal computing paradigm, we apply the special techniques and technologies that are featured by pervasive computing theory.

As an example, the use of a home blood pressure measuring device might be considered “pervasive” by some, as it allows the user to sit at home, to measure his blood pressure, and either record the data in a booklet, phone the doctor or nurse, or enter the data in an email or even a PC application. We do not recognize this to be an example of pervasive technology neither in theory nor applied. If the user instead performs the measurements, and does not have to worry about the data getting to the doctor and in his medical records, as this happens automatically, this would be one step closer to a pervasive computing scenario. In fact – if the user had to do absolutely nothing, where he needs to worry about installing the infrastructure and getting the data sent, then that is even closer to “calm technology”. Most calm or pervasive would it be, if the user was not even aware that he was being monitored (of course after having given his permission), then that would be truly calm technology.

Our definition of what is indeed pervasive technology and what is not, is quite perilous. What might be considered pervasive by some might not be appreciated as such by others. The field of pervasive healthcare is not sufficiently rigidly defined to truly deal with this, as is neither pervasive computing. But again, falling back to Mark Weiser’s teachings, pervasive technology should be as calm and invisible as possible.

Bardram et al. [7] gives the, in their own term, superficial definition of “pervasive healthcare” as being the application of pervasive computing in healthcare. They do however propose, that pervasive healthcare, like pervasive computing, is a truly multidisciplinary field, involving many different technologies and schools of thought.
Bardram et al. also recognize the different aspects of pervasive healthcare whether in a hospital setting, or in the home of the patients or end-users.

REFERENCES

  • [1] US Census Bureau, International Database. Accessed via Internet: http://www.census.gov/ipc/www/idb/, November 2008.
  • [2] T. Ezzati-Rice, D. Kashihara and S. Machlin, “Health care expenses in the United States, 2000”, Agency for Helatchare Research and Quality, Report 04.0022, 2004.
  • [3] J.E. Bardram, A. Mihailidis, D. Wan, “Pervasive Computing in Healthcare”, CRC Press, p.6, 2006.
  • [4] “Scaling Mount Proteome to bring down chronic disease”. The Pfizer Journal®, Global Edition Volume 1I, Number 2, 2001, 4-9.R.
  • [5] Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, National Center for Health Statistics, Health United States, “Limittation of acitivity caused by selected chronic health conditions among working-age adults, by age United States, 2004-2005.”, 2007, Figure 16. Data from the National Health Interview Survey. Accessed via Internet: http://www.cdc.gov/nchs/data/hus/hus07.pdf, November 2008.
  • [6] Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, National Center for Health Statistics, Health United States, “Limittation of acitivity caused by selected chronic health conditions among older adults, by age: United States, 2004-2005.”, 2007. Data from the National Health Interview Survey. Accessed via Internet: http://www.cdc.gov/nchs/data/hus/-hus07.pdf, November 2008.
  • [7] J.E. Bardram, A. Mihailidis, D. Wan, “Pervasive Computing in Healthcare”, CRC Press, 2006.
  • [8] S. Candrili, J. Mauskopf, “How much does a hospital day cost?” Presented at: 11th Annual International Meeting of the International Society for Pharmacoeconomics and Outcomes Research May 20-24 2006. Philadelphia. PA
  • [9] L.M Tolstrup, A. Bonne, Dansk Regioner, Note on the Estimated Average Value of 1 Day of Hospitalization in a Danish Public Sector Hospital, data drawn from http://www.sst.dk/-Planlaegning_og_behandling/DRG.aspx , November 2008.
  • [10] R. Bennefield, R. Bonnette, “Structural and occupancy characteristics of housing: 2000”, United States Census Bureau, Report No. C2KBR-32, 2003
  • [11] J. Keye, T. Zitzelberger, “Overview of healthcare, disease, and disability”, in “Pervasive Computing in Healthcare”, CRC Press, p. 3-20, 2006.
  • [12] R. Thractenberg, C. Singer, J. Kaye, “Symptoms of sleep disturbance in persons with Alzheimer’s disease and normal elderly”, Journal of Sleep Research 14, 177-185, 2005
  • [13] M. Weiser, “The computer for the 21st century”. In Scientific American, September, 1991.
  • [14] M. Weiser, “Some computer science issues in ubiquitous computing”. In Communications of the ACM, July 36, vol. 7, 1993.
  • [15] D. A. Norman, “The invisible computer: why good products can fail, the personal computer is so complex, and information appliances are the solution”. The MIT Press, Cambridge, Massachusetts, USA, 1998.
  • [16] H. Kautz, L. Arnstein, G. Borriello, O. Etzioni., D. Fox. “An overview of the assisted cognition project.”, AAAI-2002 Workshop on Automation as Caregiver: The Role of IntelligentTechnology in Elder Care, Edmonton, Alberta, 2002.
  • [17] Seon-Woo Lee, Yong-Joong Kim, Gi-Sup Lee, Byung-Ok Cho, Nam-Ha Lee, “A remote behavioral monitoring system for elders living alone”, Control, Automation and Systems, 2007. ICCAS '07. International Conference on, pages 2725_2730, Oct. 2007.
  • [18] C.Y. Huang and J.L. Su, “A middleware of dicom and web service for home-based elder healthcare information system”. Information Technology Applications in Biomedicine, 2007. ITAB 2007. 6th International Special Topic Conference on, p. 182-185, Nov. 2007.
  • [19] DICOM. Accessed via Internet http://medical.nema.org/ , Nov. 2008
  • [20] NEMA. Accessed via Internet http://www.medicalimaging.org/. November 2008
  • [21] U. Varshney, “Pervasive healthcare and wireless health monitoring”, Mobile Networking Applications, 12(2-3)113-127, 2007
  • [22] A. Bamis, D. Lymberopoulos, T. Teixeira, A. Savvides, “Towards precision monitoring of elders for providing assistive services”. In PETRA '08: Proceedings of the 1st international conference on Pervasive Technologies Related to Assistive Environments, pages 1-8, New York, NY, USA, 2008. ACM.
  • [23] D. Kirovski, N. Oliver, M. Sinclair, D. Tan. “Health-os: a position paper”. In HealthNet '07: Proceedings of the 1st ACM SIGMOBILE international workshop on Systems and networking support for healthcare and assisted living environments, pages 76-78, New York, NY, USA, 2007. ACM.
  • [24] L. Schwiebert, S.K.S. Gupta, and J. Weinmann, “Research challenges in wireless networks of biomedical sensors”. In MobiCom '01: Proceedings of the 7th annual international conference on Mobile computing and networking, pages 151-165, New York, NY, USA, 2001. ACM.
  • [25] M. Rodrig, A. LaMarca. “Oasis: an architecture for simplified data management and disconnected operation”. Personal Ubiquitous Computing, 9(2):108-121, 2005.
  • [26] J. E. Bardram, C. Bossen, A. Thomsen, “Designing for transformations in collaboration: a study of the deployment of homecare technology.” In GROUP '05: Proceedings of the 2005 international ACM SIGGROUP conference on Supporting group work, pages 294-303, New York, NY, USA, 2005. ACM.
  • [27] Telcomed, “About us”, Accessed via Internet: http://www-.telcomed.ie/about_us.html, November 2008
  • [28] Corscience, “Telemedicine”, Accessed via Internet: http://www.corscience.de/en/medical-engineering/products-systems/telemedicine.html , November 2008
  • [29] Tunstall, “Telehealth Monitors”, Accessed via Internet: http://www.tunstallhealthcare.com/Default.aspx?ID=2137, November 2008
  • [30] Intel, “Intel Health Guide Overview“, Accessed via Internet: http://www.intel.com/healthcare/ps/healthguide/index.htm, November 2008
  • [31] Continua Alliance, “Home Page”, Accessed via Internet: http://www.continuaalliance.org, November 2008.
  • [32] Continua Alliance, “Overview”, Accessed via Internet: http://www.continuaalliance.org/about/, November 2008.
  • [33] Continua Alliance, “Delivering on the promise of modern medicine: the need for interopable health & medical devices”, Accessed via Internet: http://www.continuaalliance.org/news_events/news/back-grounder, November 2008.
  • [34] Continua Alliance, “Continua Overview Presentation”, Accessed via Internet: http://www.continuaalliance.org/about/Continua-_Overview_Presentation_v10.1.pdf, November 2008.
  • [35] Linux Information Project Definition. “Vendor lock-in definition”, Accessed via Internet: http://www.linfo.org/vendor_lockin.html, September, 2007. [35]
  • [36] S. Wagner, "Towards an open and easily extendible home care system infrastructure”, Proceedings of the 2nd International Conference on Pervasive Computing Technologies for Healthcare, Tampere, Finland 2008
  • [37] S. Wagner, “Zero-configuration of pervasive healthcare sensor networks” Proceedings of the The Third International Conference on Pervasive Computing and Applications (ICPCA2008), Alexandria, Egypt, 2008.
  • [38] R.A. Soerensen, J.M. Nygaard, “Distributed zero configuration base station”, Proceedings of the 2nd International Conference on Pervasive Computing Technologies for Healthcare, Tampere, Finland (2008).